Complying with license agreements for closed source software libraries is pretty straightforward. You pay your money, and sometimes it's a lot of money, and sometimes you have to go through the odious "talk with the salesperson before you even find out how much money it is." Eventually, in spite of these obstacles, you get your requested number of licenses, and as long as you don't exceed that count, and as long as you don't do something stupid like post the licensed source code to your company web site, you're fine. The vendor doesn't usually care about how you attribute their work or whether you statically or dynamically link their code or how you patch it to meet your needs (if they provide source) or what other libraries you're using.
Complying with license agreements for open source software libraries can be significantly more complicated. While a lot has been written about the pros and cons of various open source licenses, their compatibility, their proliferation, and so on, there's relatively little guidance on how to comply, in practical terms, with the licenses of libraries that you use in software development. (Kudos to the Create Commons group for their efforts to make licensing so easy to understand; however, most of their effort focuses on cultural works and not software.) Much of what does cover license compliance focuses heavily on the corporate legal / risk management perspective, such as this article by Bruce Perens:
The law team... has to operate differently than they're used to. They have to be conscious that engineers are scored on meeting a timeline, and can't stop development while they're waiting for an answer from legal. Thus, legal has to be able to take on-impulse calls from engineering, and answer them in a timely fashion.
That's too expensive!, say the lawyers and managers. But it's part of the cost of doing business today. When I learned electronics, engineers built products by soldering together resistors and transistors. But today, the job of engineers is to build derivative works by combining units of intellectual property owned by third parties. That's not what they're trained for, and it's a mine-field of potential litigation for every company that puts software in its products - whether or not that software includes Open Source. Without an effective partnership between legal and engineering, your company walks that mine-field every day.
And while Bruce Perens obviously has a lot of experience in this area, I'm not convinced that it has to be this complicated for the average ISV or in-house developer who's using open source components in his day-to-day work. In a small attempt to reduce the complexity, here's a brief list of the most popular open source licenses, along with what it takes, in practical and oversimplified terms, to comply with each license in developing a closed source application. Of course, since I am not a lawyer and do not speak for my employer, this posting should in no way be construed as legal advice and is in fact quite possibly not worth the metaphorical paper it's printed on. (And metaphorical paper isn't worth much these days.) With that disclaimer out of the way, here's what you need to do:
- Regardless of the license, avoid claiming that the entire software application is © You.
- If you're shipping code under the Boost Software License: You have no additional obligations (as long as you're only shipping binaries).
- If you're shipping code under a BSD-ish, MIT, or X11 license: Include a copy of the code's copyright notice and license.
- If you're shipping GPL'ed code (version 2 and version 3): Don't, unless it's a standalone executable and you're merely bundling your app with it.
- If you're shipping LGPL'ed code (version 2.1 and version 3): Make sure that you link dynamically rather than statically to the LGPL'ed code. (So in Windows, make sure that you use it as a DLL.) A few LPGL'ed libraries have specific exceptions for static linking under Windows, and if the dynamic linking requirement is particularly burdensome, there are possible workarounds. Also, the LGPL may require that you permit reverse engineering of your application for purposes of compatibility with future versions of the LGPL'ed code; see the full text of the LGPL or consult a lawyer for details.
- Extra requirements if you're shipping GPL'ed or LGPL'ed code:
- Include attribution of the code's origin and its license, and include a copy of the license.
- Your physical media must either include a copy of the GPL'ed / LGPL'ed source or must be accompanied by a written offer to make the source available.
- If you distribute your application online, then you must make the source code available from the same download site to whoever can download your application.
- If you distribute your application online, and if either the GPL'ed or LGPL'ed code is released under version 3 of the GPL or it's released under an earlier version of those licenses with permission to use "(at your option) any later version" of those licenses, then instead of making the source code available yourself, you may provide a link to an upstream server hosting the code. (I find it easier to do #3 than to worry if #4's requirements are met.)
- If you're shipping MPL'ed code: Include attribution of the source code and its license. Include information on where to find the source code.
- If you're shipping code under the Apache Software License: Include attribution and a copy of the license.
- If you're shipping code under the Eclipse Public License: Include attribution and a copy of the license. Include information on where to find the source code. Additionally, you are obligated to release your source code if it constitutes a derivative work of the EPL'ed software. There are no cut-and-dried criteria for what constitutes a derivative work by the EPL; see the EPL FAQ items 25, 26, and 27 for details.
- If you're shipping GPL'ed, LGPL'ed, or MPL'ed code that you have modified: You must distribute a prominent description of your modifications (as part of the GPL'ed or LGPL'ed source distribution, and even if you wouldn't otherwise have to distribute MPL'ed source). Check the license for exact details regarding what form this description should take.
- If you're using GPL'ed, LGPL'ed, MPL'ed, BSD-ish, MIT, X11, Apache, EPL, or Boost code for internal applications only: All of this is vastly simplified, since licenses like the GPL explicitly do not place any restrictions on internal use, and since many of these licenses' clauses apply only to those to whom the software is distribute. For example, you could likely use a GPL'ed unit test library with closed source software, since the unit tests are only distributed to developers who already have the source.
- If you're using GPL'ed, LGPL'ed, MPL'ed, BSD-ish, MIT, X11, Apache, EPL, or Boost code to develop a web site: Again, all of this becomes vastly simplified, since the web site's code is only "distributed" to the web server. Only one or two licenses (like the Affero GPL) have special requirements for web sites.
- If software patents are involved: Reread the licenses and ask a lawyer.
Quite a few of these license have some variation on attributing and including a copy of the license. Figuring out the exact attribution format required by each license can be tricky; a handy solution is to see how companies like Google, Sun, and VMware handle it, since their legal departments are much larger than most organizations'.
- OpenOffice.org includes the following clause in its EULA: "Third Party Code. Additional copyright notices and license terms applicable to portions of the Software are set forth in the THIRDPARTYLICENSEREADME.html file." Within the third part license readme file, each library gets its own section with wording similar to the following:
The following software may be included in this product:William's Wonderful Widgets; Use of any of this software is governed by the terms of the license below:Copies of the LGPL and GPL are included at the end.
- Google Chrome includes a notice in its Help > About screen: "Google Chrome is made possible by the Chromium open source project and other open source software." "Open source software" here is a link bringing up a credits page that lists each component, its homepage, and its license.
- VMware devotes a section of their web site to collecting all of their open source licenses and source code and includes a link to this site in their EULA. Installation directories also include license lists similar to OpenOffice.org's.
A few extra resources regarding open source license compliance:
- The Software Freedom Law Center has written "A Practical Guide to GPL Compliance,", thoroughly covering GPL (and LGPL) compliance.
- The FOSSology open source project can help track the licenses of software components you're using.
- In the commercial sector, Black Duck Software can do the same. Black Duck also collects various statistics on open source projects.
The timing of this post occurring shortly after news of a major GPL-related lawsuit was completely accidental.